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Posted 07 November 2012 - 08:50 PM
2Sa 22:37 Thou hast enlarged my steps under me; so that my feet did not slip.
Thou hast enlarged my steps under me - The idea here is that David’s path is wide with plenty of room to walk. He was before straitened, compressed, hindered in his goings, but that now all obstacles had been taken out of the way, and he could walk freely.
That my feet did not slip - The Hebrew word here rendered in the text feetmeans properly a joint; small joint; especially the ankle. The reference here is to the ankle, the joint that is so useful in walking, and that is so liable to be sprained or dislocated. The meaning is that he had been enabled to walk firmly; that he did not limp. Before, he had been like one whose ankles are weak or sprained; now he was able to tread firmly. The divine favor given to him was as if God had given strength to a lame man to walk firmly.
that my feet did not slip - so as to fall and perish; sometimes the steps of the saints stumble; slip, and fall, but not so as to be utterly cast down and perish eternally;
Psa 18:37 I have pursued mine enemies, and overtaken them: neither did I turn again till they were consumed.
2Sa 22:38 I have pursued mine enemies, and destroyed them; and turned not again until I had consumed them.
I have pursued mine enemies, and overtaken them - He had not only routed them, but had had strength to pursue them; he had not only pursued them, but he had been enabled to come up to them. The idea is that of complete success and absolute triumph.
Neither did I turn again - I was not driven back, nor was I weary and exhausted, and compelled to give over the pursuit.
Till they were consumed - Until they were all either slain or made captive, so that the hostile forces vanished. None of my enemies were left.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 08:52 PM
2Sa 22:39 And I have consumed them, and wounded them, that they could not arise: yea, they are fallen under my feet.
I have wounded them - I have so weakened them that they were not able to rally again. This does not refer so much to wounds inflicted on individuals in the hostile ranks as to the entire host or army. It was so weakened that it could not again be put in battle array. The idea is that of successful pursuit and conquest.
They are fallen under my feet - either dead, or become subject and tributaries to him. He has completely trodden them down - a common mode of denoting entire victory, Psa_119:118; Isa_25:10; Lam_1:15; Dan_8:13; Luk_21:24.
they are fallen under my feet - This may very well be accommodated to David's antitype (Christ), and be expressive of the entire victory he has obtained
Psa 18:39 For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me.
2Sa 22:40 For thou hast girded me with strength to battle: them that rose up against me hast thou subdued under me.
For thou hast girded me with strength unto battle - that natural strength, courage and valor, which David had, were from the Lord; and so is the Spirit of power, love, and of a sound mind, which believers have; and likewise that strength which Christ had.
Thou hast subdued under me - Hebrew, caused to bow. That is, God had caused them to submit to him; he had enabled him to overcome them; still acknowledging that all this was from God, and that the praise was due to Him, and not to the power of his own arm.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 08:54 PM
2Sa 22:41 Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies, that I might destroy them that hate me.
Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies - Their necks to tread upon, as the result of victory; or their necks to be subject to me, as the neck of the ox is to his owner. The phrase is sometimes used in this latter sense to denote subjection Jer_27:12 I spake also to Zedekiah king of Judah according to all these words, saying, Bring your necks under the yoke of the king of Babylon, and serve him and his people, and live. but it is more commonly, when applied to war, used in the former sense, as denoting complete triumph or conquest. It was not uncommon to trample on the necks of those who were overcome in battle. Jos_10:24 And it came to pass, when they brought out those kings unto Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said unto the captains of the men of war which went with him, Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these kings. And they came near, and put their feet upon the necks of them. Gen_49:8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee. The word used here means properly neck, nape, the back of the neck. The best interpretation is that of complete subjection - as when the conqueror places his foot on the necks of his foes. Treading on the neck of an enemy was the triumph of the conqueror, and the utmost disgrace of the vanquished. This is confirmed by the next member of the sentence, where David speaks of the complete destruction of those who hated him.
That I might destroy them that hate me - The idea is that of utterly overcoming them; of putting an end to their power, and to their ability to injure him.
Psa 18:41 They cried, but there was none to save them: even unto the LORD, but he answered them not.
2Sa 22:42 They looked, but there was none to save; even unto the LORD, but he answered them not.
But there was none to save them - To preserve their lives. No help appeared from their own countrymen; they found no mercy in me or my followers; and God did not interpose to deliver them.
They cried, but there was none to save them - It is in 2 Samuel 22:42; "they looked"; that is, they looked round about, here and there, to see if there were any near at hand to help and deliver them; they cried in their distress, and because of the anguish of their spirits, and for help and assistance, but in vain; they cried perhaps to their idols; it is no wonder there was none to save; for such are gods that cannot save:
Even unto the Lord - Such as Saul, Ishbosheth, Absalom, etc., who, professing to worship the true God, called on him while in their opposition to David; but God no more heard them than their idols heard the Philistines. As a last resort. People appeal to everything else for help before they will appeal to God; often when they come to Him it is by constraint, and not willingly; if the danger should leave them, they would cease to call upon Him. Hence, since there is no real sincerity in their calling upon God - no real regard for his honor or his commands - their cries are not heard, and they perish. The course of things with a sinner, however, is often such that, despairing of salvation in any other way, and seeing that this is the only true way, he comes with a heart broken, contrite, penitent, and then God never turns away from the cry. No sinner, though as a last resort, who comes to God in real sincerity, will ever be rejected.
But he answered them not - He did not put forth his power to save them from my sword; to keep them alive when they were thus vanquished. Had they cried unto him to save their souls, he would undoubtedly have done it; but their cry was for life - for the divine help to save them from the sword of the conqueror. There might have been many reasons why God should not interpose to save them from the regular consequences of valor when they had been in the wrong and had begun the war; but there would have been no reason why he should not interpose if they had called upon him to save them from their sins. There may be many reasons why God should not save sinners from the temporal judgments due to their sins - the intemperate from the diseases, the poverty, and the wretchedness consequent on that vice - or the licentious from the woes and sorrows caused by such a course of life; but there is no reason, in any case, why God should not save from the eternal consequences of sin, if the sinner cries sincerely and earnestly for mercy.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 08:56 PM
2Sa 22:43 Then did I beat them as small as the dust of the earth, I did stamp them as the mire of the street, and did spread them abroad.
Then did I beat them small, as the dust before the wind - The phrase denotes the utter ruin and destruction of them, and represents their case as desperate and irrecoverable; being, as it were, pounded to dust, and that driven away with the wind: just as the destruction of the four monarchies is signified by the iron, clay, brass, silver, and gold, being broken to pieces, and made like the chaff of the summer threshing floor, and carried away with the wind, so that no place is found for them any more, Daniel 2:35;
I beat them small as the dust before the wind - As the fine dust is driven by the wind, so they fled before me. There could be no more striking illustration of a defeated army flying before a conqueror.
I did cast them out as the dirt in the streets - The idea in the place before us is, that he poured them out, for so the Hebrew word means, as the dirt or mire in the streets. As that is trodden on, or trampled down, so they, instead of being marshaled for battle, were wholly disorganized, scattered, and left to be trodden down, as the most worthless object is. A similar image occurs in Isa_10:6, where God is speaking of Sennacherib: “I will send him against an hypocritical nation ... to tread them down like the mire of the streets.”
I did cast them out as the dirt of the streets - expressing indignation and contempt; which also denotes the low and miserable condition to which they were reduced, and the entire conquest made of them, and triumph over them.
Psa 18:43 Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people; and thou hast made me the head of the heathen: a people whom I have not known shall serve me.
2Sa 22:44 Thou also hast delivered me from the strivings of my people, thou hast kept me to be head of the heathen: a people which I knew not shall serve me.
Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people - In 2 Samuel 22:44, it is read "my people," meaning the people of Israel; either Saul and his men, who contended with David, and sought his life; or rather the tribes of Israel, who, after Saul's death, refused to acknowledge David as their king, but afterwards came and anointed him in Hebron. The words may very well be interpreted of the contentions of the Scribes and Pharisees with Christ, and of the opposition from sinners, which he for a while endured, but is now delivered from them all;
Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people - From the contentions of the people; or, from the efforts which they have made to overcome and subdue me. The allusion is to the efforts made by the people, under the guidance of their leaders. It is not “strivings” among his own followers, but the efforts, the strivings, the contentions of his enemies, who endeavored to obtain the mastery over him, and to subdue him.
thou hast made me the head of the heathen - it agrees with Christ, who is the head of his chosen ones among the Gentiles; the political head, King, and Governor of them, the heathen being given him for his inheritance and possession; and which appeared in the first ages of Christianity, when the Gospel was first preached to the Gentiles by the apostles; and still continues, and will be more clearly seen in the latter day, when the Lord shall be King over all the earth. Christ was made the head of the heathen, by the appointment and designation of his Father; and, in fact, was so when multitudes from among the Gentiles were converted and brought to the obedience of him.
Thou hast made me the head of the heathen - The head of the nations; that is, the nations round about. In other words, he had, by the divine aid, brought them into subjection to him, or so subdued them that they became tributary to him. The meaning is, that surrounding nations had been made subject to him; or that he had been made to rule over them. David, in fact, thus brought the surrounding people under subjection to him, and made them tributary. In 2 Sam. 8 he is said to have subdued Philistia, and Moab, and Syria, and Edom, in all of which countries he put “garrisons,” and all of which he made tributary to himself.
a people I have not known shall serve me - by whom are meant the Gentiles, who were not the people of God, were without Christ and without God, and without hope in the world.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 09:00 PM
2Sa 22:45 Strangers shall submit themselves unto me: as soon as they hear, they shall be obedient unto me.
As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me - Hebrew, At the hearing of the ear. That is, their submission will be prompt and immediate. The fame of my victories will be such as to render resistance hopeless; my fame, as at the head of a mighty empire, will be such as to lead them to desire my friendship and protection.
As soon as they hear of me - His victories were so rapid and splendid over powerful enemies, that they struck a general terror among the people, and several submitted without a contest.
As soon as they hear of me they shall obey me - That is, as soon as they should hear of Christ, through the preaching of the word, by which faith would come, they should readily and at once receive, embrace, and profess the Gospel, and yield a cheerful submission to the ordinances of it; and which has had its accomplishment among the Gentiles, Acts 28:28 "Therefore let it be known to you that the salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will hear it"
The strangers - Hebrew, The sons of the stranger. The word refers to foreigners, to those of other nations. His name and deeds would inspire such respect, or create such a dread of his power, that they would be glad to seek his friendship, and would readily submit to his dominion.
Shall submit themselves unto me - yield feigned obedience. The Hebrew word used here means properly to lie, to speak lies; then, to deceive, or disappoint; then, to feign, to flatter, to play the hypocrite. It is manifestly used in this sense here, as referring to those who, awed by the terror of his name and power, would come and profess subjection to him as a conqueror. Yet the use of the word here implies that he was aware that, in many cases, this would be only a feigned submission, or that the homage would be hypocritical; homage inspired by terror, not by love. David accepted the acquiescence and the submission, but he understood the cause; and this knowledge would only tend to make his throne more secure, as it would save him from putting confidence or trust where there was no certainty that it would be well placed.
Shall submit themselves unto me - Toward David as a sovereign there was much real loyalty, but there was also much professed allegiance that was false and hollow; allegiance which would endure only while his power lasted, and which would only wait for an opportunity to throw off the yoke. In respect to God, also, there are not a few who “feignedly submit” to him, or who yield feigned obedience. They, too, are awed by his power. They know that he is able to destroy. They see the tokens of his greatness and majesty, and they come and profess submission to him - a submission founded on terror, not on love; a submission which would cease at once could they be assured of safety if they should renounce their allegiance to him. And as David was not ignorant of the fact that not a little of the professed submission to him was false and feigned - so, in a much higher sense - in a much more accurate manner - God is aware of the fact that many who profess to be subject to him are subject in profession only; that if they could do it with safety, they would throw off the very appearance of loyalty, and carry out in reality what exists in their hearts.
Psa 18:45 The strangers shall fade away, and be afraid out of their close places.
2Sa 22:46 Strangers shall fade away, and they shall be afraid out of their close places.
And be afraid out of their close places - The word rendered be afraid means to tremble - as those do who are in fear. The word rendered close places means places that are shut up or enclosed, as fortified cities or fortresses. The reference is to their places of retreat, towns, castles, fortresses. The meaning is, that they would find such places to be no security, and would tremble out of them; that is, they would flee out of them in consternation and alarm. The general thought is that of ultimate complete security for himself and his kingdom, or entire deliverance from all his enemies.
be afraid out of their close places - their towers and fortified places, or the rocks and mountains to which they take themselves for shelter; but, as not thinking themselves safe enough, through fear and dread, come out of them
The strangers shall fade away - Hebrew, “The sons of the stranger.” That is, foreigners. The word rendered fade away means properly to wilt, wither, fall away, as applicable to flowers, leaves, or plants, Psa_1:3; Psa_37:2; Isa_1:30; Isa_28:1. Here it means that those foreign nations would diminish in numbers and in power, until they should wholly disappear. The idea is, that all his foes would vanish, and that he and his kingdom would be left in peace.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 09:02 PM
2Sa 22:47 The LORD liveth; and blessed be my rock; and exalted be the God of the rock of my salvation.
the Lord liveth - He is often described as the living God in contradistinction to idols, who are represented as without life, Deu_5:26; Jos_3:10; 2Ki_19:4; Psa_42:2; Mat_16:16; 1Th_1:9. Psa_115:5; Psa_135:16. It is probably in allusion to this idea that the phrase “The Lord liveth” is used here.
the Lord liveth - The declaration itself is to be taken as praise of God. This, with what follows, is the concluding part of the psalm, which ends with a celebration of the Divine Being, and with thankfulness for mercies received from him.
let the God of my salvation be exalted - God was the God of his salvation in a temporal sense, saving him daily from his many enemies; and in a spiritual sense, being the author of it to him; Let him be exalted, be praised, be honored, be adored. Let his name be exalted above all idol gods; above all the creatures that he has made. The wish is, that His name might be made prominent; that all creatures might praise and honor Him.
Psa 18:47 It is God that avengeth me, and subdueth the people under me.
2Sa 22:48 It is God that avengeth me, and that bringeth down the people under me,
It is God that avengeth me - vengeance only belongs to God, and he repays it for and in behalf of his people. Romans 12:19 Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather give place to wrath; for it is written, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord. Hebrews 10:30 For we know Him who said, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord. And again, "The Lord will judge His people."
And subdueth the people under me - The idea is that he had subdued the nations so that they became obedient to him. The primary notion of the word used here is to set in a row; to range in order; to connect; to lead; to guide; - then, to reduce to order; to subdue. This God had done in respect to the nations. Instead of being rebellious and tumultuous, God had reduced them to obedience, and had thus set him over a kingdom where all were subject to order and to law.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 09:03 PM
Posted 07 November 2012 - 09:05 PM
2Sa 22:49 And that bringeth me forth from mine enemies: thou also hast lifted me up on high above them that rose up against me: thou hast delivered me from the violent man.
He delivereth me from mine enemies - From Saul and his men, from Ishbosheth and Abner, from Absalom, and the conspirators with him; so Christ himself is delivered from all his enemies, being raised from the dead, and set at the right hand of God, where he must reign till all enemies are put under his feet;
thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me - David was lifted up from a low and mean estate, and placed on the throne of Israel, above all those that rose up against him, and sought to destroy him; and Christ, he is highly exalted at the right hand of God, above all principality and power, might and dominion, and every name that is named in this world;
thou hast delivered me from the violent man - either from Saul, from whom David was delivered; or from Satan the enemy, the son of wickedness, who shall no more exact upon and afflict the Messiah.
Psa 18:49 Therefore will I give thanks unto thee, O LORD, among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy name.
2Sa 22:50 Therefore I will give thanks unto thee, O LORD, among the heathen, and I will sing praises unto thy name.
Therefore will I give thanks unto thee -The Hebrew word in the form used here, means properly to profess, to confess, to acknowledge; then especially to acknowledge or recognize blessings and favors; in other words, to give thanks, to praise. The idea here is that he would make a public acknowledgment of those blessings which he had received; or that he would cause the remembrance of them to be celebrated among the nations.
Among the heathen - Among the nations. David speaks this in special relation to Christ who was to be his seed, and of whom he was an eminent type, and by whom alone this was done. The apostle Paul uses this language Rom_15:9 as expressing properly the fact that the knowledge of God was to be communicated to the “Gentiles:” Rom_15:9 and that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy, as it is written: "For this reason I will confess to You among the Gentiles, And sing to Your name." The word “heathen” or nations, in the passage before us, corresponds precisely with the meaning of the word Gentiles; and Paul has used the language of the psalm legitimately and properly as showing that it was a doctrine of the Old Testament that the truths of religion were not to be confined to the Jews, but were to be made known to other nations.
And sing praises unto thy name - The meaning is, that he would cause the praises of God to be celebrated among foreign or pagan nations, as the result of what God had done for him.
Posted 07 November 2012 - 09:09 PM
2Sa 22:51 He is the tower of salvation for his king: and sheweth mercy to his anointed, unto David, and to his seed for evermore.
Great deliverance giveth he to his king - Not that David is king over him; for he is King of kings and Lord of lords; but that is made king by him; who did not usurp the throne, but was anointed king by the appointment of God. Same as Christ is, whom God has set as his King on his holy hill of Zion, against whom the heathen raged, and kings and princes set themselves; but He is delivered from them all, and saved from the power of death and the grave, and ever lives to reign over, protect, and defend His people; in 2 Samuel 22:51, it is, he is "the tower of salvation for his king," with which compare Proverbs 18:10 The name of the LORD is a strong tower; the righteous man runs into it and is safe.
Great deliverance giveth he to his king - The word in the original, which is rendered “deliverance,” means properly salvations, and is here in the plural number. It refers not to one act of divine interposition, but to the many acts (referred to in the psalm) in which God had interposed to save him from danger and from death. The phrase “to his king” refers to the fact that God had appointed him to reign, and to administer the government for him. He did not reign on his own account, but he reigned for God, and with a view to do his will.
showeth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore - which may be understood of David literally, who was the Lord's anointed; and then by his seed is meant the Messiah, who was of his seed according to the flesh. It may also refer to the Messiah, whose name signifies Anointed; and who is often called David, Ezekiel 34:23 And I will set up one Shepherd over them, and He shall feed them, My servant David. He shall feed them, and He shall be their Shepherd. Hosea 3:5 Afterward the sons of Israel shall return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. And they shall fear the LORD and His goodness in the ends of the days. and by his seed are meant his spiritual seed; all the elect of God, who are children of God.
Forevermore - This expresses the confident expectation of David that the government would remain in his family to the latest times. This expectation was founded on such promises as that in 2Sa_7:12-13 And when your days are fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who shall come out of your bowels. And I will make his kingdom sure. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 2Sa_7:16 And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever. Psa_89:36 His seed shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before Me. The perpetuity of this kingdom is found, in fact, in the reign of the Messiah, a descendant of David, in whose eternal reign these promises will receive an ample fulfillment. Isa_9:7 There is no end of the increase of His government and peace on the throne of David, and on His kingdom, to order it and to establish it with judgment and with justice from now on, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will do this. Luk_1:32-33 He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God shall give Him the throne of His father David. And He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end. The temporal reign passed wholly away in the process of time from the descendants of David; the spiritual reign is perpetual in the Messiah. How far David understood this is impossible to determine. It is sufficient for the proper understanding of the place to remember (a) that there will have been a strict fulfillment of the promise, according to the full import of the language, in the Messiah, the Son of David; and (b) that, however this may have been understood by David who recorded the promise, the real author of the promise was the Holy Spirit, and that the real meaning of the promise, as thus recorded, was that it should be fulfilled as it has been.
I have forgotten to add this to other studies Ive posted here about the psalms. It is posted in one of my studies already though. Here is my disclaimer about sources used and how I study.
I read a chapter then I go over it verse by verse. I read through commentaries etc to glean background information, rejecting what does not seem correct and keeping what does. I mix it up, add some of my own, interspersed with paragraphs from the commentaries. The commentaries and all my notes are what I post with each verse. For copyright purposes, I use the KJV since it is not copyrighted in the US, and for posting publicly, I use commentaries whose copyrights are open. When reading my study/ studies, I encourage you to use whichever version of the bible you are most comfortable with. I used the following commentaries: John Wesley's Explanatory Notes; Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; Spurgeon's A Treasury of David; Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary; Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament; Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary; Albert Barnes Notes on the Bible; Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible; John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible and Strong's Concordance. I have read modern commentaries but have not posted from them in my public studies.
Posted 13 November 2012 - 02:20 AM
WoW ! I must say to you -Worthy chat servant - I am learning quite a bit here tonight Thank you for all these postings you have helped fill in a lot of gaps for me - I know that God was certainly wanting for me, to be here and read all this and the meanings behind them thank you for the time to write them all -well worth the read -excellent !
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