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New, Abrahamic, Mosaic Covenants Revisited

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So after reviewing this thread I've studied this topic further. I really should've differentiated between the Abrahamic and the New Covenant. What are your thoughts?

God bless,



So here we go:


I. First what is a Biblical Covenant?

A Biblical Covenant is an agreement between God and humanity recorded in the text of the Bible.

II. Second what are the primary Covenants in the Bible?

A. The New Covenant: Jeremiah 31:31-34

1. Who was it given to?
Originally it was given to the prophet Jeremiah as a message of hope to Israel.

2. What was the promise?
The promise was for a new Covenant with Israel – to put the law within them and write in on their hearts. Each person would know the lord from the least to the greatest. God promises to forgive the people’s iniquity and remember their sin no more. (See Jeremiah 31:31-34 below)

Jeremiah 31:-34
31 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, declares the Lord. 33 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.”


Jesus explained further what was the New Covenant – His very own life.

Luke 22:20
And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

3. To who does or did the promise apply?
Salvation is first for the Jew and then the Gentile. (Rom. 1:16) Gentiles are grafted into the promises made to Israel. (Rom. 11)

4. How long would it last?
There is no mention of this New Covenant ending in Scripture. 

5. Who was the mediator between God and Mankind?
Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant. (Hebrews 7:22, Gal. 3:7, 1 Tim. 2:5)

6. How does it or did it work?
Make no mistake – salvation is absolutely free to mankind (John 3:16) but extremely costly to God (1 Jo. 4:9, Rom. 5:8 - His Son Jesus Christ’s sacrifice on the cross).

Jesus Christ who was Messiah foretold (Gen. 12:3, Dan. 7:13, Is. 7:14, Is. 9:6) in the OT died for all people that all should no longer live for themselves but for God through Jesus Christ. (2 Cor. 5:14-15) God revealed that those who Believed in Jesus Christ would be grafted into the promise made to Israel. (Rom. 1:16) The Uncircumcised Gentiles - (Eph 2: 11) are now grafted in (Rom. 11) as a part of the Circumcision (God’s chosen people of promise - Israel) through Christ’s atonement sacrifice of blood (and His life) for our sins at the cross (Eph 2: 13).

Jesus didn’t abolish the law but instead to fulfill the law. (Matt. 5:17) When Christ gave the summary of the law (Matt. 22:36-40), Jesus didn't do away with it. Jesus said specifically that on all the rest of law and the prophets depend on the two great commandments (Love God, Love people). He got to the heart of the issue - motivation and inner transformation. (Rom. 12:2)

Salvation (eternal life with God) is a free gift from God and not by works. (Eph. 2:8-9)

7. What is the sign of this covenant?
Jesus, The Cross and the Empty Tomb

Circumcision was the outward sign of Israel (Gen. 17:10) but physical circumcision had to be matched with circumcision of the heart or the internal sign. (Deut. 30:6, Jer. 4:4) Christians lives are the testimony to God’s grace – a sweet aroma or fragrance of gratefulness to God. (2 Cor. 2:15) Jesus Christ’s sacrificial love is the standard. (Matt. 22:36-40 - Love God, Love people; John 15:13; 1 Cor. 13)

B. Abrahamic Covenant: Gen. 12, 15, & 17

1. Who was it given to?
Exclusively to Abraham and his descendants through Jesse (Is. 11:1-2). All the families of the earth would be blessed by this covenant. (Gen. 12:3)

2. What was the promise?
God promised to Abraham a land, a great nation, a great name, and a blessing that would include all the families of the earth.

Gen. 12:1-3
Now the Lord had said to Abram:
“Get out of your country,
From your family
And from your father’s house,
To a land that I will show you.
2 I will make you a great nation;
I will bless you
And make your name great;
And you shall be a blessing.
3 I will bless those who bless you,
And I will curse him who curses you;
And in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.

It is important to note that this covenant was unconditional. It is explained that Abraham was looking for a better, heavenly land who’s builder is God. (Heb 11:8-16) This seed was Jesus Christ. (Gal. 3:16)

3. To who or did/does the promise apply?
All of Abraham’s descendants. (Gen. 17:17, Gal. 3:7, 26-29)

4. How long would it last?
It is an everlasting covenant. (Gen. 13:15) It is not replaced by any later covenant. (Gen. 17:17) It was to replace the Mosaic Covenant. (Heb. 8:13)

5. Who was the mediator between God and Mankind?
Promise of the physical descendent of Abraham known as Messiah (we now know to be Jesus Christ). (Genesis 12:3; 22:18)

6. How does it work?
Again, this Abrahamic Covenant could not be broken and was unconditional. The focus is on God’s grace and mercy to a specific people - Israel. Abraham accepted by faith God’s promise. So this covenant is based on faith in God’s promises. "Abram believed the LORD, and he credited it to him as righteousness.” (Gen. 15:6)

God promised Abraham a land, a nation, a name, and a blessing (Messiah). The land promised to Abraham is described several times and can be found here: Genesis 12:7; 13:14-15; 15:18-21

7. What is the sign of this covenant?
Faith in God is what justifies. Not good works, following rules, or morality. Abraham is living proof of this fact. (Gal 3, Rom 4, Heb 11:8-10, 17-19)



C. Mosaic Covenant: Exodus 19-24

1. Who was it given to?
Moses and the children of Israel at Mt. Sinai. (Ex. 19:2)

2. What was the promise?
This covenant is a conditional (If Israel obeyed, then God would bless them) covenant.

Ex. 19:3-6
“Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain and said, “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob and what you are to tell the people of Israel: ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. 5 Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

3. To who does or did the promise apply?
This applied to the people of Israel. (Ex. 19:3-4)

4. How long would it last?
The Mosaic Covenant was a temporary, conditional covenant (Ex. 19:5-6), and was broken by Israel. The Mosaic Covenant was to end with the coming of the Messiah. This covenant was completed in and through Jesus Christ. (Lev 6:1-39, Deut. 28, Mal. 3:5.)

5. Who was the mediator between God and Mankind?
Moses. (Ex. 19:3-4) Moses says “We will do it all.” (Ex. 19:8)

6. How does it or did it work?
This Mosaic Covenant was to end with Christ. (Heb. 8:13) The focus is on God’s holiness (A consuming fire – Ex. 24:17) and mankind’s need of a true mediator in Messiah – Jesus Christ. Moses was the mediator between God and mankind. Israel was to obey all the law as set forth in the 10 commandments on tablets of stone. (Ex. 24:12) Moses was delayed so the people fell into idolatry by making a golden calf to worship. (Ex. 32:1-6) Moses broke the first tablets when he got mad at Israel for following after idols. (Ex. 32:19-20) Moses goes back up to Mt. Sinai so God can write His laws upon the tablets of stone. (Ex. 34:1-2)

The Mosaic covenant was ratified as Moses recounted the law, people said “we’ll obey,” built an alter, set up 12 pillars, sacrificed to God, the covenant was read, the people again say “we’ll obey,” Moses sprinkles blood on the book and the people, there was a Mosaic covenant meal, and then the people went up. (Ex. 24:3-8)

7. What is the sign of this covenant?
Circumcision was the outward sign of Israel. (Gen. 17:10) The Law of the 10 Commandments was the standard.

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Guest_Geoff Primanti_*

Guest_Geoff Primanti_*
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I would only add that the New Covenant is written in our hearts through what is written in Luke 11:13, Romans 5:5, 13:8-10 and 8:4, and works itself out practically because of 1 John 3:18.


We receive the Holy Spirit through faith in the finished work of Christ that He accomplished for us in dying for our sins; and through the Holy Spirit we obtain the love which is the fulfilling of the law.  Galatians 5:14, 22-23, Romans 13:8-10, Matthew 22:35-46.  Also Ephesians 2:8-9.

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Guest_Geoff Primanti_*

Guest_Geoff Primanti_*
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I would also say by way of reminder that the law is no longer written on tablets of stone in this new covenant but on tablets of flesh, that is, human hearts.


And we should also keep Galatians 5:1-6 and 6:14-16 in mind when thinking on these things.

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