Yes, in my opinion and understanding of scripture. I think the real divide in how people view this is in regards to who Israel is. To me, what Paul is speaking of here in Romans is in regards to believers, whether Jew or Gentile there is no partiality within the body. So why the Jew first? Jesus. He is first, and it was through the Jews He was brought into the world. Everyone who believes in Him, whether Jew or Gentile there is no partiality. The same is true with the unbelievers, there is no partiality there either, both Jew and Gentile in that group receive the same judgement, by the law.
Consider who came to the promised land, it seems most only see Jews who came up out of Egypt in the Exodus. This is simply not true, what took place in Egypt was God revealing Himself to all people, and Gentiles came up out of Egypt as well.
Numbers 32:12 none except Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite and Joshua the son of Nun, for they have wholly followed the Lord.’
Caleb was not a natural born Jew, he was a Kenizzite.
Numbers 34:19 These are the names of the men: Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
Same Caleb, grafted in to the tribe of Judah, which is the tribe Jesus descends from.
Joshua 14:6 [ Caleb's Request and Inheritance ] Then the people of Judah came to Joshua at Gilgal. And Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, “You know what the Lord said to Moses the man of God in Kadesh-barnea concerning you and me.
Joshua 14:13 Then Joshua blessed him, and he gave Hebron to Caleb the son of Jephunneh for an inheritance. 14 Therefore Hebron became the inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this day, because he wholly followed the Lord, the God of Israel.
Joshua 15:13 According to the commandment of the Lord to Joshua, he gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh a portion among the people of Judah, Kiriath-arba, that is, Hebron (Arba was the father of Anak).
So in answering your original question, God shows no partiality between those who believe in Him, whether Jew or Gentile, and that has always been true. Now the passage you quoted from Deuteronomy earlier speaks to the difference between the elect, and those who are not, or believers and unbelievers, just as the passage from Romans says. That is my understanding according to the scriptures.